सरकार द्वारा गई गंगा गायत्री का संरक्षण हो: राज्रजेश्वराश्रम
There is a similarity in Cow and River Ganga. therefore as the laws are ment for protection of Cow, such similar laws should also be ment for the protection of ganga also.
NGT has given a judgment that the boundaries of the Ganga will be demarcated. Under this decision, any of the construction work (bridge, building, mining etc.) will not be done within the 200 meter of the Ganga. And no pollution will be spread in the area of 500 meters.
Recently, the responsibility to clean Ganga is given to HNB Garhwal University, in the presence of Chief Minister of Uttarakhand. This is a good decision by the Government to keep the Ganga alive.
Uttarakhand High Court has lifted the ban on mining along the River Ganga. Mining work in the river is also necessary as the silt continues to flow in the river continuously.
Sadguru Jaggi Vasudev will drive from Kanyakumari to Himalayas under his campaign 'Rally for Rivers'. Under which they will spread messages to save the Rivers.
Written by – Shripad Dharmadhikari And Jinda Sindhbhor
The Indian Government has recently taken up an ambitious project of National Inland Waterways.The new reportof Manthan and Shruti tells of the side effects of the construction phase shown below:
Therefore, waterways lead to the rivers and human being brought to crisis. It is very necessary to solve the side effects before running such multi-purpose projects.
At last a close look up in such project that:
In the National Waterway Act, 2016, details of 111 national waterways have been given, according to which the National Waterways pass through almost all major rivers of India. Below we can see the number of proposed waterways in different states in sequence:
On August 1, 2016, according to the press release issued by the Port Ministry of Transportation through the Press Information Bureau, there are six national waterways working in India:
Authors are environmentalists associated with Manthan Adhyayan Kendra.
Till now, the Government of India (GOI) used to give grants to the Municipalities to establish the STPs. The Municipalities were happy to construct the STPs but not to run them. Now the GOI has signed Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) for two Sewage Treatment Plants (STPs) at Varanasi and Haridwar on “Hybrid Annuity Model” (HAM) under the Namami Gange program (attached here).
According to a report from International Rivers; “Out of world’s 177 largest rivers, only one third is free flowing, and just 21 rivers longer than 1,000 kilometres retain a direct connection to the sea.”Thus dams are being removed across the world. (we can see the list of dams removed here) In 1984 California’s Trinity River Basin Fish and Wildlife Management Act (see here) was signed, authorizing the secretary of the interior to develop and implement a management program to restore the fish and wildlife populations in the Trinity River to levels which existed prior to construction of trinity and Lewiston dams.
Similarly Pak Mun Dam was completed in 1994 for generation of electricity in Thailand due to which more than 20000 people have been affected by the drastic reduction in fish populations upstream of the Dam site. Observing this Thailand Government agreed to open the dam gates in june 2001. (Report by International Rivers)
“International Rivers is working with Pak Mun villagers and the Assembly of the poor to demand that the Pak Mun Dam be decommissioned and the river restored. On March 23, 1999, more than 5,000 villagers occupied the Pak Mun Dam site and established Ban.” (By International Report)
Again, in the report of American Rivers (Page 20 - 29). we can see that USA has removed 467 dams for Ecological issues, Economical issues, Safety issues, Recreation issues, Failure issues, unauthorized dams issues and most of the dams were removed, which were under construction. Now whole over there is a movement against dams for conservation of ecology. By Jagadguru Shankaracharya “Ganga additionally has a huge emotional, cultural and spiritual vale”.(Shankaracharya’s Statement available here). It is strange that the world is removing dams merely for ecology but we are destroying Ganga and her ecology and culture by making more dams.
After the partition of India Bangladesh in 1947, India tooks initiative to construct a Barrage on Ganga Riiver at farakka. But This Hydro-developmental initiative have left various negitive impacts on Bangladesh as well as in India also. Bangladesh is facing negitive environmental effects, whereas India is facing floodings and water crises after the construction of Farakka Barrage.
Aadi Guru Shankaracharya has written about Ganges in Ganga Ashtakam:
You (O Ganga) glide down from the caves and golden mountain Please purify us..
Geological water resources are critical for maintaining continuous flow of the Ganga. This water is released from ground water aquifers through springs which are recharged by water seeping along the roots of the dense forest.
Tunnels are made for the construction of Hydropower projects. Heavy blasting is done for this and leads to the aquifers getting pierced and no longer holding water for release later. Due to which these natural water resources are decaying day by day and flow of water in Ganga during the summers is declining.
A study of 3 Hydropower projects on the Bhagirathi River, a tributary of the Ganga, namely Maneri-Bhali 1, Maneri-Bhali 2 and Loharinag Pala commissioned by Ministry of Environment has found evidence of 5 out of 24 springs having dried up as marked in red colour in Table below:
Hydropower projects affected villages in Bhagirathi Valley (P= Perennial, S1= seasonal for six months, S2= Seasonal for three months)
Impact of Hydropower projects on natural water resources (Data by: Dr. G.C.S.Negi)
We are constructing hydropower Projects for the nation’s economic development. But we are killing the Ganga in the process. There is a need to reconsider this policy.
Ganga Rejuvenation Minister Nitin Gadkari has launched 150 new projects for cleaning Ganga. 90 projects have already been approved. Mr Gadkari believes that these projects will clean the Ganga. (we can see full speech here) But Mr Gadkari simultaneously wants to run big ships over Ganga. The Ganga will be polluted by the chemicals and lubricants which is left by these ships. In the given picture below, we can see that, the paint of ship having copper is absorbed by the water. This is harmful for aquatic lives like turtles and fishes which clean the Ganga, thus ship will pollute the Ganga. (report is available here –Para 1).
The movement of large ships increases the sound pollution, due to which the fames Ganga Dolphin is unable to catch its prey. Dolphins do not have eyes. They track and catch their prey by sound of the movements.
In his speech, Shri Gadkari has not discussed any of the negative impacts of these waterways on environment and Ganga. The Ganga Rejuvenation Minister, therefore, is actually only concerned about commercial exploitation of the Ganga.
We welcome the central Government that did not ban Padmavati. History is not fixed. It has always changed its colour with time. An excellent example is of the Rig Veda and the Valmiki Ramayana. In the Rig Veda, Vritra is described as a coward or a monster. The same Vritra is called a pious person or Dharmatma in Valmiki Ramayana. The Ramayana says that the killing of Vritra by Indra was wrong. Clearly the Ramayana has rewritten the history as told by the Rig Veda. If rewriting of history is wrong then Valmiki Ramayana should also be banned. The question today is not that Padmavati is rewriting history. That has always happened. The question is whether the movie Padmavati has rewritten the history correctly or incorrectly.
The same is the case of Ganga. Her history is being rewritten today, alas! Wrongly. Adi Shankaracharya has described the Ganga in Ganga Astakkam as follows: “She descends from top of the hills, grass grows on its banks, crocodiles live in it, she flows like a snake, and one who sees her waves gets salvation.”
This history is being rewritten today. Now the Ganga is being seen as a source of electricity, means of transportation and the irrigation.
Today the country is in flames because the history of Pdamavati is being allegedly rewritten. There is no discussion whether the alleged rewriting is correct or incorrect. Rewriting of history is itself being challenged. If all rewriting is bad, then why are the same people happily rewriting the history of the Ganga?
The four Shankaracharyas have clearly written that obstructions such as dams and barrages should not be made on the Ganga. See here.But we have no hesitation is ignoring their statement and rewriting the history of Ganga for our petty profit.
History is always relative to its time. In the Rig Veda, Vritra is said to be a monster and in Ramayana the same Vitra is said to be Dharmatma. The debate should be on whether the rewriting is correct or incorrect? We should discuss whether the killing of vritra was correct or not? We should discuss what has been rewritten about Padmavati in the movie. Similarly, we should discuss whether the rewriting of history of the Ganga in destroying her free flow as venerated by Adi Shankaracharya and the present Shankaracharyas is correct; and whether seeing Ganga only as a source of electricity, navigation and irrigation is correct?
We have being suggesting that we should not make dams on the Ganga for the generation of hydropower in order to conserve environment fisheries and sediment. Question is: “How will we meet our requirement of electricity if we do not use hydropower? We do not have large deposits of coal, so we cannot develop thermal power. We do not have large deposits of uranium, so we cannot develop nuclear power. The only alternatives we have are hydropower and solar power.” Thus the question becomes: which of these should we develop?
According to the report of National Institute of Solar Energy in India the solar power potential is about 750 GW whereas according to the report of “The Pioneer” the total installed capacity of the Hydropower is 306358 megawatts. Government has followed the right policy in increasing the solar power generation up to 100,000 GW. At the same time the Government wants to increase most of the power generation from Hydropowers. This requires reconsideration.
The generation of solar power is environmental friendly than Hydropower. It does not harm the rivers and forests. Solar power panel are installed in barren areas like desert in Rajasthan and Deccan Plateau. Solar power is also much cheaper than hydropower. The present cost solar power is about Rs 3 per megawatt, whereas it is Rs 8 to 11 per megawatt by hydropower. Therefore solar power is both cheaper and environment friendly and it should be promoted on priority.The potential of solar power is estimated at 750,000 megawatts (see here). This is nearly five times the potential of hydropower estimated at 145,000 megawatts. Therefore, it is possible for us to meet all our electricity requirements by solar power. There is no real need to generate hydropower.
The only problem with solar power is that electricity can produce only in day time when sun shines whereas the demand of electricity is more in morning and evening when there is no sunlight. On other hand the advantage of the hydropower projects is that it can produce electricity anytime. Hydropower projects store water in day and night, and generated electricity in morning and evening when the demand is high. This is the reason that hydropower generation is preferred over solar power generation.
In conclusion, solar power is cheaper and eco-friendly but it can be produced only in day time when the demand is less. On the other hand Hydropower is expensive and eco-damaging, but it can be produces in morning and evening when demand is more.
The solution is to combine hydropower with pump storage. We can pump water from lower reservoir to higher reservoir during the day when the solar power is available; and release it during the evening and morning when we need electricity as shown in the picture.
The Central Electricity Authority has estimated that the cost of pump storage plant is about 30-40 paise per unit (kWh) (see here). A study by IIT Kanpur has estimated the cost as less than 30 paise: “It is found that the presence of pumping based storage facility translates to a value of Rs. 0.297/kWh in the overall cost.” (See here).
So solar power combined with pump storage scheme can be supplied in morning and evening at about Rs 4 per kilowatt. On the other hand the hydropower costs between 8 to 11 rupees for the same supply. Therefore, we must go for combination of solar power with pump storage; and save our rivers and environment.
Big dams like Tehri are not sustainable. The main function of these dams is to store water in the monsoons and release the same in winters and summers for irrigation. This water is stored in a reservoir behind the dam.
The river brings sediment with water and the sediment gets deposited in the reservoir. This is especially so in the Ganga which carries much higher volume of sediments compared to other large rivers of the world. The reservoir behind the dam is filled with sediments in a short time. It can then no longer store monsoon waters. It becomes like a bucket that is filled with sand and cannot hold water
Engineers are aware of this problem. They try to solve this by making gates at the foot of the dam. These gates are opened occasionally. The water released from the gates carries the sedimentsdeposited behind the dam. The sediments are flushed out of the reservoir. However, the entire sediment of the reservoir is not flushed out. For example, the length of the reservoir is about 45 kilometers at Tehri whereas, the sediment which is flushed out for only about 1.5 kilometer behind the dam as shown in the picture below.
About 43 Kilometers of the sediment remain in the reservoir. So gradually the sediment fills up the bulk of the reservoir and the water storage capacity of the reservoir becomes proport5ionately less.
Tehri Hydro Power Corporation has conducted two studies of this problem. The first study has been done by the Tojo Vikas International Company. This study says:
“Progressive loss of storage due to sedimentation in different storage zones are assessed as under:
Dead storage 0.6% in 3 yrs
Live Storage 0.59% in 3 yrs
Gross Storage 0.59% in 3 yrs”
The bottom portion of the reservoir is permanently filled up with water and is called “Dead Storage.” The upper part is called “Live Storage.” Here water is released in the summer and filled up again in the rains. According to the Tojo company, about 0.6percent of live storage and dead storage has decreased in three years. That is, 0.2 percent of storage has been reduced in a year. This reduction will accelerate as the Dead Storage gets filled and the incoming sediment gets deposited in the upper layer of Live Storage. If there all the sediments were flushed out then there would be no such reduction in the Live Storage. Thus the Tojo Company has stated that the useful life of the Tehri Dam will be approximately 130 years:
“Keeping in the view the above calculation by methods defined in the CBIP manual on the reservoir, the useful life of the reservoir can be taken safely as 130 years.” (Tojo Company's report can see here).
The second study is done by Hydrologic Designer of IRI Roorkee Shri A.C. Pandey. Its results are almost the same as above. According to Mr. Pandey, the dead storage in Tehri Dam will be fully filled in about 170 years. The capacity of the reservoir will become zero in 465 years. (See detailed survey on Tehri dam done by Shri Pandey)
After the reservoir is filled up with sediments completely, the water will flow through the upper surface above the sediments as shown in the picture below:
Therefore, according to both studies, the capacity of Their Reservoir has already started decreasing. The Dead Storage will be filled in 130 to 170 years. After that, the reduction in the capacity of water storage of Tehri dam will accelerate. In nearly 200-300 years, the Tehri Dam will be completely filled with sediment and it will not be able to sustain a drop of water.
The question is should we build these dams for the short run gains of 200-300 years? The construction of these big dams should be stopped if we want sustainable development.
please write to Prime Minister Shree Narendra Modi for this issue.
The farmers will not get water from Sardar Sarovar Dam for irrigation this year after March due to less rain in the catchment of the Narmada River and low level of water in the Sardar Sarovar Dam.
At present Gujarat is getting 11 BCM (billion cubic meters) of water from Sardar Sarovar. Only 2 percent of Kutch and 10 percent of Saurashtra region is irrigated from this water. Narmada water is not reaching the remaining 98 percent Kutch and 90 percent of Saurashtra. The benefit from Sardar Sarovar to Gujarat is limited to this small land area only.
Presently, the complete attention of the Government is towards bringing the Narmada water to Gujarat. Narmada water is being brought to Kutch and Saurashtra through pipelines involving huge expenditures. As a result, the State Government is not able to give attention to the irrigation of 98 percent land of Kutch and 90 percent land of Saurashtra. Even if Narmada water comes to this area, this large tract of land will not be benefitted.
There is a huge potential of irrigation in these “non-Narmada” areas of Gujarat. According to the report of “Sardar Sarovar Narmada Nigam Limited”(page 18), Saurashtra and Kutch will receive 9 BCM water from Narmada whereas in this region the rainfall is about 17 BCM. Thus the Gujrat Government is spending most of its budget in bringing 9 BCM of water from Narmada which has uncertain availability; while 17 BCM of available water is wasted.
Experiments prove that there is enough development of irrigation due to the recharge of ground water by harvesting rain water through check dams. Excerpts from 3 reports are being given below:
"Today, I sow groundnuts in June,tur and wheat as winter crops and cultivate oilseeds in summers. I could not imagine farming in summers. There were days when we hardly farmed six months. Since the check dam initiative, we are working round the year."(Report 1)
“Villagers of Mandlikpur have benefited from well water recharging and check dams. In 1993, this village began recharging its 150-odd wells.” (Report2)
“As a result of the check dam building, the river in Saurashtra has been regenerated. Today, water is seen in the river throughout year including the lean months and the river flow is observed in almost nine months.” (Report3)
Photos of check dams to recharge groundwater and plastic-lined tans to store water are given at Pictures …
The Government is spending most of the budget in bringing Narmada water which has uncertain availability while it is not investing in rain water harvesting which is more certain. The reason seems to be that there are no big contracts in rainwater harvesting, so the Government's attention is on Narmada water. Therefore, Gujarat should do rainwater harvesting. This experience shows that irrigation from big dams is not a solution for India.
We are fastest growing economy in the world today. That places additional responsibility on us to pursue economic growth in an environment-friendly way. Our will be copied by rest of the world. It is, therefore, necessary to see the impact of growth on extinction of species.
A number of different cow breeds were seen earlier but now mostly Jersey breed alone is seen. Similarly hill tree species like buransh and kafal are becoming extinct (see photo below). Fruits like Kafal, Nimoli and Kaseru are now not seen.
Our tradition tells us to protect all living species. The shanti mantra says:
"Om May there be Peace in Heaven, May there be Peace in the Sky,
May there be Peace in the Earth, May there be Peace in the Water, May there be peace in the Plants,
May there be peace in the Trees, May there be Pease in Gods in the various Worlds, May there be peace in Brahman,
May there be Peace in all, May there be peace Indeed within peace, Giving me that Peace which Grows Me,
Om Peace, Peace, Peace."
This mantra seeks peace for the species living in the sky, water and earth.
We have been making some efforts to conserve threatened species in keeping with this philosophy. We have established Tiger Reserves and National Parks. But there are other species where we have been lacking. In the following picture we give some species that are on the brink of extinction.
We are contributing the extinction of species. According to the report of International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), the six causes of species extinction are given below. (see report od IUCN here)
In the context of rivers, we are causing habitat destruction by making barrages and dams. The famed Hilsa fish is not able to reach its upstream reproductive area because of the Farakka Barrage and it has become extinct between farakka and Allahabad. Similarly Mahseer fish is not able to reach its reproduction area in the upper Himalayas due to the Bheemgoda Barrage at Haridwar and Srinagar Dam. Over –extraction of river water for irrigation is making the Ganga dry below Narora Barrage in the plains. The pollution load of the Ganga is well known. In this way we are endangering the aquatic species.
The survival of these species is necessary for us because species diversity can help us to survive in the face of climate change. For example, we have a species of paddy which grow with flood water very rapidly. It produces grains even in the floods. Now suppose we have prevented the floods by building dams. There will be no floods and this paddy species will be destroyed. Its seeds will become unavailable.
Now, let us say, floods occur despite the dams due to intense rains in the plains. The ‘normal’ paddy species will not be able to grow in these floods. We will then face difficulty in meeting our food requirements. If we had preserved the species of flood-friendly paddy species, then we could again cultivate it on a large scale.
Therefore, economists believe that keeping the endangered species alive is not only a natural responsibility of mankind, but also it is an economic resource that can help keep humans alive in the future. In the context of rivers, we have to withdraw from hydropower and over-abstraction for irrigation so that these species. Alternatively we can redesign the barrages to allow free movement of aquatic species and conserve this resource for our future.
Recently, NDA Government has provided additional capital of Rs 80 thousand crore to the public sector banks in order to enable them to overcome the losses incurred by them due to corruption. But the Government does not have Rs 8,000 crore to rejuvenate the Ganga.
In manifesto of 2014 of the NDA, the Government had said that it is committed to ensure "continuous flow of Ganga." (See Government's manifesto here - Page 6).
Prime Minister Dr. Manmohan Singh stopped three under-construction hydropower projects that obstructed the continuous flow of the Bhagirathi, a tributary of the Ganga, namely Bhaironghati, Maneri Bhali - 1 and Loharinagpala, after the hunger strike of Sanand Swami (Dr.G.D. Agarwal, former professor, IIT Kanpur). The Government enterprise NTPC had spent about six hundred crores on Loharinagpala. The allegedly “secularist” Congress Party directed NTPC to bear a hit of Rs 600 crore rupees to ensure continuous flow of Ganga.
The NDA Government led by Prime Minister Modi came to power in 2014. The Vishnu Prayag hydroelectric project was commissioned earlier and was running at the time of Mr. Modi coming to power. The Srinagar hydroelectric project was under construction in 2014 and was commission after Mr. Modi came to power. The Construction of Vishnugad-Pipalkoti project started in 2014 after Mr. Modi came to power. The NDA led by Mr. Modi took no steps to stop the construction of Srinagar and Vishnugad Pipalkotti projects despite its commitment to ensure continuous flow of Ganga.
Indeed that these three projects have got the environmental approvals and they have not made any mistakes in legal terms. However, this was also the situation of Lohrinagpala. But Dr. Manmohan Singh took the bold step to stop its construction.
Now, Mr. Modi can nationalize these three projects and give proper compensation to the Companies and remove Vishnu Prayag and Srinagar projects and stop the construction of Vishnugad Pipalkoti project. According to our estimate, the cost of Srinagar project is about Rs 4 thousand crore, the cost of the Pipalkoti project at present is about Rs 2 thousand crore and the cost of Vishnuprayag is about Rs 500 crore. Considering other expenditures to be Rs 1500 crores, the cost of removal of these 3 projects would come to about Rs 8 thousand crore. If Dr. Manmohan Singh could direct the Government to take a hit of Rs 600 crores in stopping Loharinagpala, Mr. Modi can direct the Government to take a hit of Rs 8,000 crores to remove these 3 projects to establish continuous flow of Ganga as committed by NDA in its manifesto.
This is not the end of the story. News is that the NDA Government will endeavor to resume the projects that were stopped by Dr. Manmohan Singh. The NDA Government wants to kill the continuous flow of the Ganga which was established by Dr. Manmohan Singh. We request to Prime Minister Narendra Modi to please spend Rs 8000 crore for the continuous flow of Ganga, if he can provide Rs 80,000 crores to cover up the losses incurred by the Public Sector Banks due to corruption.
Please write to Prime Minister regarding this issue
पृष्ठ 1 का 2